What Rod Dreher gets right in "The Benedict Option" is just as important as what he gets wrong.

Whether you come to it from the left or the right, Rod Dreher’s long-awaited The Benedict Option is a book that will not satisfy. Which is exactly why you should read it.

While Dreher has been thinking and writing about the Benedict Option on his blog at The American Conservative for almost a decade, the roots of the idea stretch back much further. They run, in fact, all the way back to Benedict of Nursia, one of the fathers of monasticism, who walked away from the gathering darkness of a decadent sixth-century Rome to build small islands of light, monasteries where communal prayer and scholarship, work and spiritual practice could be preserved.


The Benedict Optionby Rod Dreher

Sentinel Press. 272p, $25

To Dreher, today’s American Empire is like unto Benedict’s Roman: We are in crisis, descending quickly into moral chaos and social disorder. After the triumph of the sexual revolution and the napalming of community performed by an individuating neoliberal capitalism, we “have been loosed,” he says, “but we do not know how to bind.” The options for Christians in the face of such a crisis are limited. For Dreher, there is perhaps only one: Benedict’s. In order to resist the corrosive social forces that swirl around us, we must imitate him and strategically withdraw from public life so as to build disciplined communities of coherent Christian practice. Dreher has diagnosed our collective illness and given us a prescription for a remedy. And it is from this paired diagnosis and prescription that all of the conclusions in this problematic, beautiful, infuriating, necessary book flow.

It ought to come as no surprise that the book fails to satisfy. The Benedict Option is, after all, a rejection the both liberal and conservative political projects; the former because it rejects the values of the left, the latter because it believes the right has already been defeated.

On the left it does not satisfy for the expected reasons: Because it advocates pulling children out of public schools and seceding from the cultural mainstream. Because Dreher unabashedly calls for a return to traditional gender identities and celebrates disciplines that constrain individual freedom. And, if I am being honest, at times it fails to satisfy because of his teeth-grinding tendency to use “traditional,” “orthodox” and “conservative” as stand-ins for “good” and “true.”

But this is a book that will not satisfy the right either—and not just because of Dreher’s outright rejection of Trumpism as a farce. It will not satisfy because Dreher thinks that, after the Obergefell decision legalizing gay marriage and the subsequent prosecution of Christians for what they view as practicing their faith, the culture wars are already over. Christian America is already a contradiction in terms. Because in Dreher’s reading the sexual revolution has already won and a morally vacuous capitalism is already dominant. In light of this, his advice to Christians is to “come to terms with the fact that we live in a culture…in which our beliefs make little sense” and move on.

A book that leaves most of its readers dissatisfied is one that is easily pigeonholed, and already The Benedict Option is being forced into predictable corners. Which is not to say that these criticisms (see here, here and here) are incorrect—many are right as far as they go.

To wit: I take it be true that Dreher’s overemphasis on withdrawal lends itself to solipsism. It’s true that his reading of pluralism as a problem prevents him from seeing it as a gift. It’s true that his tone can be dismissive and caustic at times, especially when he writes of that notorious “L.G.B.T. agenda.” It’s true that he does not engage with the different experiences—Christian, political or otherwise—of black and brown and Native Americans. And I take it to be true that, although Dreher tries to distance himself from a let’s-get-back-to-the-golden-age dreaming, his diagnoses often sound darkly pessimistic and his prescriptions for the present nostalgic.

Although Dreher tries to distance himself from a let’s-get-back-to-the-golden-age dreaming, his diagnoses often sound darkly pessimistic and his prescriptions for the present nostalgic.

This may seem like a long list—and it is. But nothing is gained by settling only for critique. To do so means refusing to learn from the large swaths of what Dreher gets right. Because what Dreher gets right is just as important—perhaps even more important—as where he misses the mark.

The signal gift in Dreher’s work, the one our legitimate dissatisfactions may allow us to too-quickly overlook, is his steady insistence that in order to be Christians today—to bear the name of Christ in truth as well as in title—we must relearn two things: practices and disciplines. That is, Dreher is right in his persistent repetition that, when it comes to the question of how we build Christian persons, how we become Christians in habit as well as in mind, “what we think does not matter as much as what we do—and how faithfully we do it.”

The shivering importance of this emphasis on practices can be better seen when we notice that we are, all of us, being formed by the things we do every day. As the philosopher Will Durant put it in his one-line-synthesis of Aristotle: "We are what we repeatedly do." And what do we do every day? We check our phones; we watch our televisions; we drive our cars. We perform these “cultural liturgies,” as James K. A. Smith names them, by rote. They sink so deeply into us that they become muscle memory. It is these repeated actions that shape our habits, our habits that shape our characters, our characters that shape our tastes and our tastes that shape ourselves. It is this insight that Dreher rightly refuses to release.

And the consequence of this insight, too: that help is required to take on Christian habits. It is because we need help maintaining our practice that we require one another. In other words: It takes a community to make a Christian, a structured support system to take on habits. This is the idea that lies behind Dreher’s insistence that “we need to embed ourselves in stable communities of faith,” that we should “live within walking distance” of fellow believers and that we turn the home “into a domestic monastery” with “regular times of family prayer.”

Certainly, this is true for me. I have been a Jesuit for 15 years and if there is one thing I can say about this vocation, it is that I cannot do it alone. Every week for the past six years I have prayed compline with some of my brothers (ironically we do it over Google Hangout). I need a community to sustain me in my effort to practice being a Christian. As do we all. When looked at in this light, the Benedict Option begins to look less like a reactionary withdrawal from pluralist societies than a recommitment to a local politics of subsidiarity.

It is by looking again at our human need for such small communities of practice that Dreher’s admittedly controversial take on individual and communal disciplines comes more clearly into focus. The heart of his argument is that there are times when communal goods must trump individual freedoms. And this is because churches, argues Dreher, fall apart when they become simply another “loosely bound assembly of individuals committed to finding their own ‘truth.’”

The conflict between individual freedom and the common good—between loosing and binding—is what lies at the heart of what is most necessary and most problematic about the Benedict Option.

The conflict between individual freedom and the common good—between loosing and binding—is what lies at the heart of what is most necessary and most problematic about the Benedict Option. This is because, on the one hand, the trumping of individual freedoms by a common way of life always threatens to turn into autocracy and domination. But, on the other hand, we are all too aware that, in the liquid modernity in which we find ourselves, the trumping of the common good by individual freedom always threatens to destroy community.

This is what accounts for the strange mixture of attraction and repulsion that so many of us—liberal individualists that we are—feel when we read about the Benedict Option. We are attracted to it, and our attraction resonates because of how deeply we want community, how desperately we want to be reassured that the world makes sense and that our lives have a place within it. But the repulsion is there as well, and not only because, like the freedom-addicts we are, we are so hooked on individuality. The repulsion is there because there is a great goodness that we have found in the recognition that each of us is—really, in all actuality—a unique facet of the immortal diamond, the one who shines in ten thousand places, lovely in limbs and lovely in eyes not his.

This is why The Benedict Option fails to satisfy. Not because Dreher has failed, but because he has succeeded in showing us our own failure to hold these two constitutive goods in loving tension. He is right to say that we “have been loosed but we do not know how to bind.” We must relearn how. And if you choose to read Dreher’s book, the exact shape of your dissatisfaction with it will, I venture to guess, correspond to the extent that you have experienced God as a loosing or as a binding force in your own life.

But just because these parts of his remedy are correct does not mean that all of his diagnosis is. There is, in fact, one final point that must be challenged. Dreher is convinced that part of the reason Christians must withdraw from the world is because, as he puts it, “we speak a language that the world more and more either cannot hear or finds offensive to its ears.”

Certainly, there are many instances in which this is true today. Anecdotes abound. But it is simply not the case that the West has gone deaf to the call of Christ. Even if the hearing of our secular world is more attuned to calls for justice and inclusion, more ready to find a call for holiness absurd or offensive, we should take seriously the evidence of God’s being already-at-work in both the world and human hearts. We must live more trustingly in the active work of an incarnational God—one who mercifully refuses to withdraw from anythinghuman— than to be tempted to think such.

Human beings remain, malleable creatures though we are, what Karl Rahner saw that we have always been: a question to which only God is the answer. Neither the fall of Rome nor our present crisis has stilled such questioning. It is because “my Father is still at work” that withdrawal is not the only Christian response. This is why there are more ways to practice a disciplined Christianity than by withdrawal.

Nevertheless, I take Dreher’s book to be doing the church a genuine and needed service. To the extent that his work reminds us that Christianity is a way of living together in the truth—reminds us that today binding is perhaps more necessary than ever—our response ought to be not dissatisfaction but gratitude.

Finding, then, in the Benedict Option a reminder of the grace of having been bound to a spouse, a family or a church, Dreher may become an ally rather than another rival to scapegoat. And Dreher, being reminded that there are more ways than Benedict’s to bind, may too discover that he has allies in unexpected places.

After all, it was none other than the co-founder of the Catholic Worker, that holy fool Frenchman Peter Maurin, who at midcentury wrote:

And we are now
in the age of chaos.
In an age of chaos
people look
for a new order.
Because people are becoming aware
of this lack of order
they would like to be able
to create order
out of chaos.
The time
to create order
out of chaos
is now.
The germ of the present
was in the past
and the germ of the future
is in the present.
The thing to do
is to give up old tricks
and start to play new tricks…
The thing to do right now
is to create a new society
within the shell of the old
with the philosophy of the new.
which is not a new philosophy
but a very old philosophy.
a philosophy so old
that it looks like new.

Comments are automatically closed two weeks after an article's initial publication. See our comments policy for more.
Tom Poelker
3 years 3 months ago

First, I would very much like to see a biographer of Benedict comment on this book, because I suspect that Benedict's original purpose was more along the lines of personal spiritual growth than building a disciplined community [at least not until others requested a community] or to preserve anything, even though the Order ended up preserving much.
Second, local Christian communities are needed to support individuals in living the Way of Jesus in a decidedly non-Christian culture. This is as true now as it was in the first century. Then Christians developed communal prayer to support them in studying the teachings and living them. Now. we have institutions more interested in self-preservation than in helping people face the challenges of living as Jesus taught among a culture of competition instead of love of neighbor.
Pastors are afraid to lose members and funds if they actually preach love of neighbor to people immersed in capitalism, sports, entertainment, instead of faith. These pastors are trained in theology instead of apostleship and neither lead nor inspire when they rehearse theological teachings instead of explaining the Christian approach to daily situations.
What we need are real Christian communities in every parish with liturgies that involve people in growing in faith and persevering in loving instead of getting ahead. We need parishioners empathizing with the difficulties of even recalling the Christian response in a world of advertising and political pandering. We need lay participation in applying Scriptures to living each week.
Dreher seems to be preaching something dangerously close to the attitudes of the "Christian Militias" who confuse their cultural biases with Christianity and have a fortress mentality for the way they think it used to be with no awareness of how recent that way is in contrast to the origins and entire history of Christianity.
Don't try to establish reserves of Christian practices. Renew Christianity's counter-cultural reality in every parish. Teach resistance to the new empires and new idols, resistance to advertising, resistance to entertainment and fashion. encouragement to distinguishing needs from niceties, encouragement to buy necessities and live with less rather than always getting more or competing to decorate in the latest mode.
This is the work of the local Christian community, not of some preservation movement. Why is there not at least one pastor in every city trying this? Where are today's Francises and Dominics? These opponents of the institutionalized, establishment church are more needed than Benedictine isolation.

Thomas Severin
3 years 3 months ago

Excellent points Tom! I heartily agree with you. In the weeks leading up to the Lenten season we have numerous readings from the Sermon on the Mount as found in Matthew's gospel. Here more than anywhere else we hear the message of Jesus that is completely counter cultural to the Rome of His day and our modern American capitalist economic system.
I seriously doubt that many priests in their homilies pointed this out and very few explained how to live in modern American society, as a true Christian, requires radically different attitudes and actions.
Do priests ever denounce our militaristic society that spends trillions of dollars making and selling weapons of war while at the same time waging futile, unnecessary wars that devastate other countries and physically and mentally scar our young male and female population?
Do priests ever question or denounce our culture's belief that individuals have the right to accumulate as much personal property and wealth as is legally possible? Do they ever point out to us how totally contrary this is to Jesus' teachings in the gospels? Do priests ever verbally or by example demonstrate the maxim that "any property or wealth accumulated beyond what one's needs, is stealing from the poor, whose basic needs are not being met."
Do priests remind us of our biblical obligation to treat the widow, the orphan and the alien with compassion and respect? Are they told that the present administration's banning of immigrants and refusal to offer aid to those fleeing war, famine, gangs and drug cartels is also completely contrary to gospel values?
Are our priests speaking out against the racism, sexism, religious bigotry and misogyny that are currently so prevalent in American society?
Sadly, many priests, ministers and church going Christians confuse patriotism with Christianity and follow a civil, secular religion not in keeping with gospel values or teachings. Our priests should know better and should have the courage to be prophetic in the denunciation of anything within our culture that devalues or contradicts Jesus' teachings.
They should be calling parishioners to a deeper spirituality that goes beyond seeking personal holiness or personal salvation and that focuses more on the needs of the larger community and larger world. No one gains salvation alone and no one who ignores the needs of the the larger community and larger world can legitimately call himself or herself a Christian.

Dominic Deus
3 years 2 months ago

Dominic Deus here:

Brother Thomas--thank you for your comments and, sadly, I am inclined to agree that if I had been able to listen to every Catholic sermon from every Catholic pulpit across the nation during Holy Week, the majority of them would have been familiar pablum preached to pews filled, however sparsely, with faithful wanting nothing more. That does not, of course, absolve priests from preaching on the many violations of the spiritual body of Christ occurring today in the public discourse, political and otherwise. Yes, where is their courage?

But where is ours? We in the pews must accept our responsibility to lead the Church, engage fully with the world, and evangelize with our actions, making a clear statement of what we believe by what we do. Brother Rod Dreher believes this can best be accomplished by withdrawal a sort of secular monasticism. I do not. A teacher of mine once said, "It is easy to be a Holy Man on a mountain top."

If Dreher and his followers can find the right mountain top, they may, indeed, isolate themselves from having to know LGBT human beings and treat them with love and acceptance. They may never issue a same sex wedding license. Their women folk may never have an abortion or use contraception and they may be able to deny the Age of Enlightenment, Humanism, the French Revolution, secularism and separation of Church and State. Are we supposed to admire that?

In fairness, I must disclose that I have not read "The Benedict Option" but I can see myself being dragged into doing so.
At present, however, I believe the time has for actual Benedictines of all orders and scholarship to step forward and speak. I am concerned that "The Benedict Option" might be nothing more than "Family Values" reborn and reclaimed by the Christian right.


David Cruz-Uribe, OFS
3 years 3 months ago

I want to question the initial presupposition of the Fr. Gilger, which he seems to share with Dreher, that late sixth-century Rome was "decadent". I do not think the historical record can support this, especially if we interpret "decadent" to draw parallels with early 21st century America as a great power that has lost its cultural and moral bearings. After the Gothic war (the reconquest of Italy under Justinian) and after the great plague devastated the empire, Rome was reduced to a shadow of itself, with a population of perhaps 35,000 (compared to 1 million in the early imperial period or 250,000 in the age of Constantine). While still a large town, it was no longer the seat of political or (secular) cultural power. One must be cautious in using the hagiography of St. Benedict to understand the setting in Rome at his time, since such portraits want to paint "the world" as evil and corrupt to draw a sharp contrast with the holiness of the subject.

Further, and this is more speculative on my part, I question the assumption that it was Benedict who "saved" Christianity in the West. Christians and Christianity continued to exist outside the walls of Benedictine monasteries, but we have very limited resources for judging its extent and vibrancy---it was the monastic communities that wrote the bulk of the histories.

Bruce Snowden
3 years 3 months ago

Based on what Fr. Patrick Gilger, S.J., said about Rod Dreher’s book, “The Benedict Option,” I’d say Mr. Dreher got it mostly right if not all right, but I’ve not read the book. I like the term, “domestic monasteries” referencing the coming together of Believers to study and pray supportive of each other and of the teachings of Jesus.

At one point in my Parish years ago, in the Archdiocese of New York, I think elsewhere too, certain homes were designated by the Pastor as Ecclesiolas, “little churches” where parishioners could gather weekly for a home-Mass and to study the Faith and pray together, strengthening their Baptismal bond in collective Faith-acclamation. Unfortunately the Ecclesiola Movement stopped moving, and the practice fell into disuse, probably from weak, longterm parochial and domestic gut-commitment.

It was a good attempt to face the need of the time, of now time and of all times really, for better evangelization of the evangelized, reaching out too, to the un-evangelized, many confused in Belief and its practical applications. Even teachers, some of them ordained show a kind of uncertain certitude, bringing to mind Jesus’ warning that if the blind lead the blind, both fall into a pit, the pit of darkness, of uncertainties, probably leading to an “I’ll do what I damn well please!” attitude. “We are what we repeatedly do,” as Aristotle said, worded as presented by Will Durant, as Fr. Gilger brought to mind in his essay.

Nothing new here that Satan hasn’t been packaging from the beginning, his muck re-labeled to attract Believers according to their times, “Father of lies” that he is! We need diligent “Can-Openers” so to speak, to open Satan’s packaging, giving Believers and all, whiffs of the filth being peddled! Would “domestic monasteries “ help? Or “Ecclesiolas?” Respectfully, heads wiser than mine had better start pondering seriously the question, “WWJD?” A simple response to a complex problem? Yes.

Alfredo S.
3 years 3 months ago

In the Office of the Readings, Proper of the Saints, January 24, the Second Reading by Francis de Sales is one that relates to this topic. Writing to Philothea, he says, "Tell me, please, my Philothea, whether it is proper for a bishop to want to lead a solitary life like a Carthusian; or for married people to be no more concerned than a Capuchin about increasing their income; or for a working man to spend his whole day in church like a religious; or on the other hand for a religious to be constantly exposed like a bishop to all the events and circumstances that bear on the needs of our neighbor. Is not this sort of devotion ridiculous, ...."

Sometimes parishes and the various movements and organizations within the Church make demands on a layperson's time that are totally out of proportion to that person's vocation in life. Duty is the standard; charity is the measuring stick.

One of these days I may even get it right. :)

Kevin Kwilinski
3 years 3 months ago

Having read the book, I find your development of an argument for the five wrongs you cite as for the most part missing. And since my reading certainly doesn't lead me to believe that these five wrongs are self evident, I find myself challenging your assertion and also asking for more examples to support your position. Taking them one by one:

  1st Wrong: "I  take  it [to] be  true  that  Dreher ʼs  overemphasis  on withdrawal  lends itself to solipsism."
  My comment: In all cases Dreher argues that Christians withdraw in a limited way and only in community of other Christians. He clearly speaks against the radical individualism discussed by Taylor. This hardly lends itself to any kind of solipsism.  For example, page 44, "Here is the end point of modernity: the autonomous, freely choosing individual, finding meaning in no one but himself." Please clarify your point.

  2nd Wrong: "that his reading of pluralism as a problem prevents him from seeing it as a gift."
  My comment: Please cite the pluralism that Dreher sees as a problem to which you object. It certainly isn't one that seeks to exclude any orthodox Christian groups. Dreher offers inclusion for all who are small "o" orthodox. He also shows support for distributism and Catholic social teaching in general at the expense of pure capitalism. What he sees as a problem is lack of orthodoxy.

  3rd Wrong: "his tone can be dismissive and caustic at times, especially when he writes of that notorious “L.G.B.T. agenda.”"
  My comment: Again please cite examples of being dismissive and caustic. Assuming you are obedient to the teachings of the Catholic Church, I assume you will agree that everything Dreher says is supported by the official teachings of the church.  What he does reject is anything that devalues the sacramental.  Anything that is not orthodox.

  4th Wrong: "true that he does not engage with the different experiences—Christian, political or otherwise—of black and brown and Native Americans."
  My comment: Dreher's primary focus is to concentrate on the early Christian church which was precisely black and brown, frequently quoting the African Augustine. He also refers to Archbishop Chaput, a Native American, and how he sees things. Dreher speaks to and includes all orthodox Christians regardless of color. What do you see as missing in his prescription that would be necessary in order for non whites to also benefit? His approach seems to me much more inclusive and non racial than what you seek in any remedy to your complaint.

  5th Wrong: "his diagnoses often sound darkly pessimistic and his prescriptions for the present nostalgic."
  My comment: There is certainly on urgency in Dreher's call to action but he addresses any pessimism by pointing to a great hope and an ultimate positive outcome. Page 238, "The church, then, is both Ark and Wellspring-- and Christians must live in both realities. God gave us the Ark of the church to keep us from drowning in the raging flood. But He also gave us the church as a place to drown our old selves symbolically in the water of baptism, and to grow in new life, nourished by the never-ending torrent of His grace. You cannot live the Benedict Option without seeing both visions simultaneously. I suppose this of all five "wrongs" is the most subjective and stylistic. I certainly found the book on the whole to be very hopeful for the future of the church if people and the church heed the call for and prescription for change outlined in the book.

Keith Giles
3 years 3 months ago

Back in January another book, "Jesus Untangled:Crucifying Our Politics To Pledge Allegiance To The Lamb" was published and it took a slightly different approach to this same concept.

In that book, the author argues that Christians should "untangle" their faith from their politics because politics [both conservative and liberal versions] are corrupt and incapable of making the world a better place.

As the author puts it, "Many American Christians are more 'American' than they are 'Christian'" and due to the politicization of the Gospel - and of Christians themselves - the Gospel has been lost in the background.

Again, the book says, "You can't covert a culture if that culture has already converted you!" and the point is that if Christians are already converted to American Nationalism, they are incapable of converting anyone to the radical Gospel of Jesus of Nazareth.

The author is currently setting up a book tour that starts in May and and has already recorded dozens of radio and podcast interviews online and at iTunes.

The book is just .99 cents this month on Kindle [at Amazon] where it is currently #1 in Christian Theology/Ethics.

You can find out more about the book and the author at www.JesusUntangled.com

Barry Fitzpatrick
3 years 2 months ago

Many thanks to Fr. Gilger, SJ, for a penetrating and measured analysis of Dreher's book and the questions it raises. Honestly, most commentary prior to reading this article scared me away from Dreher's book, but now I will venture forth and attempt to digest it.
What is most compelling about Gilger's article is the calm and measured call to listen to all sides and to form a Christian community of faith and practice that stays true to its roots AND engages the society in which it finds itself. There appears to be some measure of moving away from real growth in relationship with Jesus and with one another if we "withdraw' and associate only among like-minded Christians.
So much of today's discussion flies in the face of Gilger's "nothing is gained by settling only for critique." Retreating into our own little "pigeonholes" serves no purpose, at least none that is helpful. Like the boss who must always be right -- you'll still be the boss but of what? None of us can go it alone, and we need not engage in the American worship of the individual at all costs. But what do we do when our suburban parishes mirror the culture from which we are supposedly withdrawing? What statement is made when we arrive on Sunday at our new houses of worship in our $50,000+ cars and after putting in our requisite hour, head home to our McMansions? Dreher could not be more correct than criticizing church communities that have become another "loosely bound assembly of individuals committed to finding their own truth." The truth we are called to live in exists ONLY in relationship, and that relationship has its foundation in the person of Jesus who would never have thought about withdrawing because some did not hear or some found His message offensive. No, He would simply continue to love them, pray for them, and help them to "start to play new tricks."

3 years 2 months ago

My sense is that in his review of The Benedict Option Patrick Gilger did not accurately characterize the position of Rod Dreher when Gilger wrote that Dreher is saying, "Christians must withdraw from the world." In fact, Dreher wrote, "To the contrary, the Benedict Option is a call to undertaking the long and patient work of reclaiming the real world from the artifice, alienation, and atomization of modern life." A dissident movement is not ipso facto a withdrawal. The efforts, whether successful or not, of Czech dissidents to establish "parallel polis" are discussed favorably by Dreher who clearly was making the point that the efforts of the Czech dissidents are worth our reflection today. It is not simply a choice of "retreat or re-engagement" as characterized by Gilger.


The latest from america

Colson Whitehead's award-winning novel is a timely reflection on who gets to write history...and who gets to erase it.
Two recently published books from Oxford University Press address the variegated and multifaced character of sin in the New Testament.
Candida MossJune 26, 2020
His vivid firsthand experiences on the job as a police officer are recounted extensively in Adam Plantinga's new book.
Deniz DemirerJune 26, 2020
Leslie Woodcock Tentler's new book is both a rigorous and laudable effort to cure American Catholics of the illusion that our desires have no history.