The stark choices the Vatican’s gender theory document is raising

A teacher at Holy Name of Jesus Catholic School in Henderson, Ky., helps third-grade students with a reading lesson on March 28, 2019. A new document from the Vatican Congregation on Education states that Catholic schools and parents must help teach children that gender is fixed from birth. (CNS photo/Tyler Orsburn)A teacher at Holy Name of Jesus Catholic School in Henderson, Ky., helps third-grade students with a reading lesson on March 28. A new document from the Vatican Congregation on Education states that Catholic schools and parents must help teach children that gender is fixed from birth. (CNS photo/Tyler Orsburn)

The Vatican Congregation on Education’s document on “gender theory” and current cultural conversations about L.G.B.T.Q issues are like ships passing in the night. Lacking a sense of how to speak into the existing conversation, the congregation’s “Male and Female He Created Them” outlines a case that is bound to generate further polarizing conflict.

Commenting in The New York Times, James Martin, S.J., states that “L.G.B.T. people are usually not responding to a theory or ideology but their own inner feelings and their own desires.” Father Martin, who expands on this point in his own essay in America, is completely right about this. But the same could be said for any feelings and desires people have—say, about the treatment of immigrants. While people are not necessarily responding explicitly to a philosophical theory of rights or an ideological construction of sovereignty, their feelings and desires often implicitly support a particular theory and are challenged by other theories. Sorting through one’s feelings and desires, and particularly the choices that follow from them, ultimately require norming by a notion of justice. “Theory” names how we think through and bring consistency to such normative understandings.


The church is concerned with long-term formation, the stories and ideas used to teach children—an enterprise that necessarily involves some normative theoretical conception of sex and gender.

We should be clear that lectures about anthropological theories are not tools for the field hospital. While the document does gesture toward “listening” and states forthrightly the need to avoid discrimination and respect the dignity of all, it does not lead with the overall priority of care in the face of suffering, which should be the first concern in the field hospital. Nevertheless, there is more to the church than the field hospital. The church is also concerned with long-term formation, the stories and ideas used to teach children—an enterprise that necessarily involves some normative theoretical conception of sex and gender. (Pope Francis himself speaks about these issues in one idiom when he is accompanying particular persons but quite another when he is exercising his teaching office.)

Traditional Catholic teaching on God’s created order of complementaries and the currently popular “gender unicorn” infographic both promote narratives about what is true and good; there is no “neutral” teaching. For example, those of us who listened endlessly to the record album “Free to Be… You and Me” in our early childhoods will never have to be taught again that it is O.K. for boys to have dolls and cry, and that it is definitely great that girls are able to do anything they want in the world!

The congregation’s document would not disagree about those lessons. But the question it takes up is what to teach about gender identities in today’s context. The document will elicit confusion because its categories challenge the current mainstream framework for L.G.B.T.Q. issues. However, clarifying two such sources of confusion—about the relationship of nature and choice, and of respect and affirmation—sheds light on mainstream notions that are themselves insufficiently developed. My goal is simply to clarify what the crucial elements of the discussion must be, if the ships are not simply to pass in the night or (worse) start firing erratically on one another.

The postmodern problem with ‘born that way’

The first confusion: The document makes its case against “gender theory” by contrasting (a) a natural order rooted in the biology of the body and (b) “theories” that, in the words of Francis, “promote a personal identity and emotional intimacy radically separated from the biological difference between male and female,” in which “human identity becomes the choice of the individual, one which can also change over time.” The document traces a history of thought that begins in an appropriate distinction between biological sex and (often oppressive) sociological gender constructions but eventually separates the two, leading to “the possibility of the individual determining his or her own sexual tendencies” based on “the subjective mindset of each person.” The document’s reading of this history presents a stark option: Either respect the God-given intrinsic connection between gender and biological sex or reject that order in favor of subjectively chosen self-definition.

[What do you think about the Catholic Church and transgender issues? Let us know in our short reader survey]

This contrastive argument seems to cut against the most publicly potent claim of L.G.B.T.Q. advocates, the “born that way” argument. The idea that sexual orientations are “given” or “found,” rather than “chosen,” is now widely accepted. Strong claims of transgender identity (“I’m really a girl”) look similar: They seem to be appealing to something “natural,” something “given.” From the “born that way” perspective, the Vatican document seems a nonstarter because of its claim that gender theories involves choice. In an article in the L.G.B.T. magazine The Advocate responding to the document, Francis DeBernardo of New Ways Ministry makes exactly this point, maintaining that people do not “choose” but “discover” their gender “through lived experiences,” a process by which a person “discovers the wonderful way that God has created them.”

There is a stark option: Either respect the God-given intrinsic connection between gender and biological sex or reject that order in favor of subjectively chosen self-definition.

Yet there is a different, longstanding strand of L.G.B.T.Q. thought—call it the “postmodern” argument— that resists claims to biological givenness and sees genders and sexualities as creative expressions of the self. With the rise of transgender and other queer identities, “born that way” arguments run straight into this postmodern problem. For example, the claim that a biologically male person is responding to feelings and desires that he is “really a female” presumes (a) some normative definition of “female” (how would one know one was “really a female” if there were no stable concept of “female-ness” by which one could make sense of the claim?) and (b) some notion of what counts as the evidence to which one can point for the claim of a “real” self (a notion not needed by postmodern theorists, who dispute the existence of any “given” or “true” self to which one could have access, whether at 7 years of age or 37).

Put another way, the further we get from a relatively discrete trait (e.g., sexual attraction), the more difficult it becomes to sustain “born that way” arguments without falling into contradictions. If male and female are social constructs, then it makes no sense to claim that a person is “really” female. The congregation’s document notes this, saying that “in a self-contradictory way,” transgender concepts “actually presuppose the very sexual difference that they propose to negate or supersede.”

If male and female are social constructs, then it makes no sense to claim that a person is “really” female.

Moreover, the existing scientific evidence for “born that way” claims is weak. A self-identified transgender neuroscientist says in an interview that the evidence for biological determination “isn’t great” and suggests that this should not matter because people should not have to “prove that we’re really a certain gender in order to be treated like a person.”

Indeed, the claim that somehow brains are “gendered” flies in the face of what we now know about neuroplasticity. As one 2018 article in a neuroscience journal puts it, “transgender individuals experience change in lifestyle, context of beliefs and concepts and, as a result, their culture and behaviors. Given the close relationship and interaction between culture, behavior and brain, the individual’s brain adapts itself to the new condition (culture) and concepts and starts to alter its function and structure.” The more gender identities proliferate, the less plausible it is to claim a firm biological basis for them. Thus, the congregation seems right to argue that the rise of transgenderism leads (at least logically) away from “born that way” arguments to the consistent position long taken by the postmodern argument: that sexuality as a whole, rather than a fixed biological “given,” is a self-expressive idiom with which one should be creative.

The problem with equating respect and affirmation

The second confusion arises from the congregation’s insistence on “the need to educate children and young people to respect every person in their particularity and difference, so that no one should suffer bullying, violence, insults or unjust discrimination based on their specific characteristics (such as special needs, race, religion, sexual tendencies, etc.).” Many will read the rest of the document and conclude that the congregation does not respect the dignity of some, especially since the whole document aims to form educational institutions to sanction a particular expression of sexuality and sexual difference as absolutely normative.

Of course, the congregation is maintaining a long-utilized distinction between respecting a person and affirming their actions. But here again, the congregation is speaking into a cultural moment where this distinction has disappeared. It seems clear the majority of Americans equate respecting the dignity of gay and lesbian persons with affirming, even applauding their relationships—the association with “pride” is not accidental. Many of the same Americans may be inclined to extend the same notion of affirmation to those who choose gender transitions.

The congregation is maintaining a long-utilized distinction between respecting a person and affirming their actions.

And to the polyamorous, to teen porn stars and to any other kind of (non-coerced) expression of sexuality? While I honestly used to think such arguments were arch-conservative scare-mongering about an unlikely dystopic future, the links above are to extensive 2019 reports by the very-mainstream NPR and The Atlantic. Just as the “born that way” argument gets very shaky as it broadens beyond a specific trait like sexual attraction, so too the equation of respect for dignity with affirmation of choices becomes strained as the choices seeking affirmation become ever larger. Just as in the first difficulty, the theoretically consistent positions are the stark options the congregation points out: Either affirm everything relativistically or recognize that respecting the dignity of persons can co-exist with regarding their choices as wrong and contrary to individual and social flourishing. The real issue for all sides then becomes how human flourishing is defined—an ethical, not purely scientific, question.

Thus, even those who disagree with its arguments should realize that the congregation has sought to clarify the core questions at stake. The congregation basically says: Let’s all put our cards clearly on the table. The deep issues simply will not be resolved by appeals to personal experiences— which, after all, can be made by both sides.

To resolve questions of nature versus choice, much more rigorous and dispassionate study is needed to understand what claims about gender dysphoria really indicate, what treatments are actually effective, and how effectiveness is defined. As not a few writers, secular and religious, have noted, the current drive for immediate and complete affirmation of self-asserted identity, even of children, is ideological advocacy by adults that may have extreme consequences on children. Moreover, as I pointed out previously in Commonweal, the usual approach of psychology to treating suffering resulting from alienation from one’s body is to aim at reconciling the person to the goodness of one’s existing body. The burden of proof for a drastic and different treatment regime in this case would seem high.

To resolve questions of when respecting dignity differs from affirming choices, everyone ought to acknowledge that human sexuality, being an extremely important and vital thing for both individuals and society, needs a normative ethic with a stringency befitting that importance. The congregation, and all popes including Francis, have remained quite clear about this. Affirming desires is never sufficient; one needs an account of the ends toward which the person and their sexuality aim.

Such questions are not the ones to debate in the field hospital, and neither should they become facile ammunition in cultural wars (which simply send more wounded to the field hospital). Care is urgently needed for all people who are suffering. But these theoretical questions are unavoidable insofar as we (a) must determine what actions actually constitute proper “care” and (b) must think carefully about how to keep people from staggering into the field hospital in the first place.

[What do you think about the Catholic Church and transgender issues? Let us know in our short reader survey]

Read Father Jim Martin's response to the gender theory document from the Vatican’s Congregation on Education.

Nora Bolcon
1 week ago

All must be done to uphold the great misogyny! Ahh! the joy of hating!

Mister Mckee
1 week ago

But wait! The "church" and all the dried up old celibate men who speak for it have already provided plenty of teaching aids to clarify this matter:

If nothing else, they provide a compelling argument in favor of getting rid of clerical celibacy! How easily would they find it to pontificate if it involved one of their own parents, children, siblings, nephews, nieces or cousins? And besides, who do they think is actually gonna READ this thing?

Crystal Watson
6 days 22 hours ago

"Long term formation of children" = how to indoctrinate kids to insure a new crop of tithing pew potatoes.

Gabe Reeder-Ferreira
6 days 22 hours ago

Fascinating how your analysis of Gender Theory has put sexual orientation under such scrutiny and criticism in this article when gender has nothing to do with one's sexual orientation. How much more clarity do you need to understand that a woman that transitions to a man may still be attracted to and desire to be in an intimate relationship with another man?

If you're worried about how to teach children about transgenderism and sexual orientation, just be straight with them and don't lie about it. Teach them the catechism says not to discriminate against LGBT persons. Why is that so hard?

Oz Jewel
6 days 15 hours ago

"Gender Theory" is one of the newborn spawn of the Neo-marxist analysis of reality which devolved from the Marxist work in Germany which gave the world Hitler and National Socialism.
Other misbegotten monsters are Critical Theory, Feminism, Black Power and Political Correctness amongst the most well known today. Google the Frankfurt School.

These theories are incompatible with the world-view given to us by God through the raising and nurturing and teaching and chastising of His chosen people until they were able to have one woman made worthy to be trusted to give birth to the Son of God and through Him break the power of sin, enable us to receive the Holy Spirit and to lead us into all truth.

Being male is totally to do with having a strong sexual orientation towards healthy attractive human females and being female is the mirror image. All human males and females, inheritors of the fall from grace by our first parents, are carriers of that human nature not in pure form but damaged.
Salvation was obtained, for all who will accept Him (the many, not all), accomplished by the birth, life, suffering, death and resurrection of the Son of God. It can come no other way, particularly by politics and polemics.

The culture of Christendom has taken centuries to develop adjustments to the damage done to human nature, recognised that role-models and experience with other males and females can influence self-identity, recognised that the passage through adolescence needed some help from older and more experienced adults and developed various ways of helping maturing people to identify their sex with their genital anatomy, ways that were not automatically successful.

We will do well to examine and adjust some of these cultural practices in the light of experience and we must not change the norms as a lazy shortcut to an unsatisfactory conclusion.

Jessica Pegis
6 days 14 hours ago

Google "Cultural Marxism" to find out why these claims amount to a conspiracy theory,

Judith Jordan
6 days 11 hours ago

Oz Jewel
Some people always want to blame anything and everything on Marxism. The go to fantasy is to blame Nazism on Marxism. Lots and lots of conspiracies to avoid reality.

Nora Bolcon
5 days 21 hours ago

Ponder this Oz,

God made an enormous variety of sexual realities in the natural kingdom. He made animals that have one distinct set of gender body parts each and that intertwine with the opposite sex to procreate (but these parts can be intertwined for sexual purposes but not procreation with the same sex) - most mammals fit this description. God also made fish that start off as one gender, and grow up to become another, and whether they become the male or female or get pregnant or become the one that impregnates others is dependent upon how many of that gender exist at the moment in that particular community. There are also animals that have both male and female privates such as slugs which have sex using both sets of their privates at the same time, so 4 sets of privates are at work in that scene at the time of intercourse. Then there are tribal type or pack type families where only one female and one male in the pack ever have sex or procreate, like with wolves, but the pack raises up the pups. Then there are ducks and hawks that mate for life as couples. Then there are penguins who, after the males fertilize the female's egg, tend to it by sitting on it constantly, with all the other male penguins, while the females leave, to hunt for food for themselves and the young, and return weeks later as the baby begin to hatch. Then there are hyenas containing some females that have longer female parts between their legs than some males and are more aggressive sexually than the male hyenas and scientists have noted that the bigger the females have of that organ down there, the more aggressive sexually the female seems to be. There are unisex animals which self-procreate and there are some insects that can't procreate without the help of other species abilities. There are animals that are designed to be like heterosexual men and women procreatively but have a good portion within their communities that also choose to either exclusively or non-exclusively mate with the same sex instead.

So knowing the above is accurate, and knowing God made nature this way or realized it would become this way, I have to conclude it is perhaps not God who has the biggest problem with variance in sexual matters. I do believe God wants people to not just have sex without conscience. I do believe God always wants us to keep in mind the health and humanity of the other person we choose to enter into a sexual relationship with but I also believe God is less condemning about who we are lovingly and respectfully having sex with than he is concerned about how we treat that person and are we willing to commit our lives, not just our bodies, temporarily, to the other person.

Mark Andrews
6 days 22 hours ago

I am keenly interested in this sentence fragment: "...that sexuality as a whole, rather than a fixed biological “given,” is a self-expressive idiom with which one should be creative."

"One SHOULD be creative." or "One CAN be creative." Let us discuss the difference between SHOULD and CAN in our current (I prefer the word "current" to "modern" or "post-modern") context.

Jessica Pegis
6 days 19 hours ago

“[T]he claim that a biologically male person is responding to feelings and desires that he is “really a female” presumes (a) some normative definition of “female” (how would one know one was “really a female” if there were no stable concept of “female-ness” by which one could make sense of the claim?) and (b) some notion of what counts as the evidence to which one can point for the claim of a “real” self …

It feels as though the author is attempting to wedge the feelings of the person with gender dysphoria into a foregone conclusion—that he or she “feels” like the opposite sex. I notice arguments are sometimes framed this way to show that there must be fixed concepts of male and female. But if you carefully examine the narratives of patients with gender dysphoria, this is not exactly how the tension is expressed. It is usually expressed as a denial of the current body or sexual anatomy (as opposed to an affirmation of the opposite one) or a denial or rebuttal of current social expectations of the given sex. Sometimes in kids it is expressed as a refusal to socialize with one given’s sex. When puberty arrives, denial and dissatisfaction may be expressed as sheer panic over the appearance of secondary sex characteristics. Sure, these feelings may also be expressed as a wish to be the opposite gender but this is only because the binary concept itself (male-female) forces that choice.

I think it’s important to start with the person’s distress and profound unease with the given body, i.e., “Something’s wrong here.” The fact that people chose varied treatment indicates that this unease is not addressed in the same way for everyone, and that the feelings of individuals with gender dysphoria must be varied and complex. From the standpoint of theology, starting with the distress partially resolves the contradiction of innate male and femaleness, as the person is not so much embracing one side of the dyad as trying to bury the other. This is why it’s really important to read what transgender people actually say, not what we think they say.

Lots of cisgender people are also intermittently unhappy with their given sex, by the way. A woman would have to be brain dead to never have experienced some frustration with her body in a society that has historically treated it like crap.

rose-ellen caminer
6 days 12 hours ago

I agree that there is no no stable concept of femaleness. There are bodies / individuals who appear female and those who appear male. That to me is all there is to femaleness and maleness.My experience of self does not encompass a subjective experience that is femaleness. Femaleness is how I appear; its biologically accurate that I'm a female but it is not something I experience . That's why I agree that when trans say they feel like the opposite sex[gender] they are expressing a deep desire to LOOK a certain way; to have or have not a certain body. And to be perceived by others as having that body.That's all it can be. Any stereotypical "feminine" mannerisms trans may exhibit are not actually "feminine" but "trans" mannerisms.[ exaggerations akin to acting]. No one knows what its like to be anyone else.When I've been treated like crap it was always for me being me ; that's how I internalize such experiences. I never felt frustrated because I have a female body.My body/myself;my body/self in the world in relation to others.Any being treated like crap was personal, as every encounter is personal. Even as historical oppression of women is general.A trans does not know what it feels like to be anyone but themselves too. There is no such thing as feeling like a woman or feeling like a man; qua woman, qua man for there are only individual men and individual woman.To have a deep aversion to ones own gendered body, to have a deep need to dress in stereotypical dress of another gender, a opposite gender name, and to delight in being perceived as of another gender, or perhaps today just as a trans; whether it's sexual characteristics dysphoria, or rebuttal of social expectations[ akin to the flamboyant flower power hippies in that sense],the cat is out of the bag. People have rights; to self identify. Its a new paradigm.I just wonder how is it like at the end of the day when the clothes are off, the makeup is off;does one stop being trans then?is it a game, an asummed identity, a fantasy,a will to power?

J Jones
6 days 9 hours ago

Rose-Ellen, here are people who are trans speaking about who they are. They can answer your final question.

Nora Bolcon
5 days 20 hours ago

Yeah - I agree on much of what you say. This is why I do believe that an adult should be allowed to change their body as they wish but I do not believe in allowing surgery on children under age 18. I believe transgender is a reaction more against stereotypes that are man made and are based on a false sense of reality. This is why the change does not bring about a change in desired sexual preference to the opposite sex of the new gender.

Oz Jewel
6 days 17 hours ago

As one of the offspring of disobedient Adam and Eve, I am able to expand the conversation to all the other issues in the 10 Commandments but will only give a sample of a few.

In my late childhood and adolescence, I had very strong feelings about my parents. I wanted to beat the crap out of my father until he promised to stop beating and terrorising me or until he was dead.
What is more, I berated God in very blunt terms to putting me into the life I had, declaring that I had no doubt He existed and was cruel and unjust and tricky.
I longed for a beautiful young virgin to love me forever and marry me and put my entire family behind me, never to see any of them again.
I groaned in despair, my body wracked with unexplained pain centred on intense headache and wished to die.
I was repeatedly disobedient and untruthful to my mother, I went into dangers which were life threatening and when I was in them I struggled desperately to stay alive - I lived on the shores of the Pacific Ocean with raging seas, cliffs and ravines and rocky waterfalls and I lied about where I had been when that was demanded of me.
I went on to abuse alcohol, drive dangerously and make myself sick with hard liquor.

All these orientations and dispositions and behaviours were disordered - no holy and loving society would change it rules and laws and practices to AUTHENTICATE all that agony, confusion and suffering and the powerful impulses to dreadful behaviour associated with them - quite the contrary.

Genetics was part of it, womb experience was part of it, defective parenting was part of it, attitudes in my local society was part of it.

Strong desire, wrong ideas and powerful impulses do not alter the absolute reality of what is virtue and what is vice.
Almighty God has set the rules, human meddling with them brings harm and disaster.

Jeffrey More
6 days 15 hours ago

Profound and valuable insights.

Jessica Pegis
6 days 14 hours ago

You're confusing transient (though not short-lived) longings many human being experience with enduring patterns of attraction and affection, or, in the case of trans people, persistent gender dysphoria. Sexual orientation and gender dysphoria are not ideas.

J Jones
5 days 20 hours ago

Jessica, thank you for this clarification.

John Mack
6 days 13 hours ago

It looks to me that if you know a transgender person, and thank that the person made the right choice for their life, then you cannot remain a Roman Catholic.

John Mack
6 days 13 hours ago

Or you cannot be a true friend.

John Mack
6 days 13 hours ago

"We have only enough religion to hate, and not enough to love." Jonathan Swift, Dean of one the two Protestant Cathedrals in Dublin, referring the the mistreatment of the Roman Catholic poor by the their British Protestant conquerors. I wonder how the people of Ireland would vote on this issue, if a vote were to be held. In general the people there klokk t the person, the life of the person, and how that person's life affects others and then they put aside abstractions and Scholasticism and directives from the Vatican and make their decision on what's best for the human person.

arthur mccaffrey
6 days 10 hours ago

a much better review of the Vatican document than James Martin's wishy washy piece in this magazine. I applaud the Pope's description of the gender wars as "cultural colonialism", and am very suspicious of attempts to expose young children to gender theory as driven by a political agenda of proselytizing and recruitment by the LGBTQ community. I think it is a load of nonsense to claim that our sexual identity is not given by our DNA and is open to creative choice. Cloutier shoots down Martin's arguments by correctly pointing out the mistake of assuming that respect does not mean affirmation or approval for lifestyle choices. Human sexual identity is given at birth and we need more than cries of "homophobia" if discussion of the issues of nature vs. nurture are to be put into a proper theoretical moral framework as Cloutier proposes.
It is simply not enough to say "born that way" and expect serious intellectual approval.

J Jones
6 days 9 hours ago

I pray everyone commenting will keep in mind that almost one out of every two transgendered male teens attempts to kill him and almost 1 out of every three transgendered female teens attempted to kill herself at least once. In a very real way, when you are ugly and unkind and rejecting and mocking and disrespectful about these people and their lives, you place the life of a young person into your own hands ... and you can make them want to die today or you make them want to live today.

Robert O'Connell
5 days 20 hours ago

May I ask two questions:

Does the statement that the "overall priority of care in the face of suffering, which should be the first concern" mean that something other than the "will of God" or loving God "with your whole heart" etc., ought to govern our behavior?

Does the reference to "neuroplasticity" mean we can change the way we feel?


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