Postmodern Catholicism

There it was again.

I was concelebrating at a funeral Mass for a deceased Jesuit. The homilist praised the deceased for having “built a bridge between postmodern culture and the church.”

Advertisement

I was sitting in a tour bus in Miami. The tour guide asked us to look to our left at the Art Deco buildings in South Beach and then to our right at a new set of postmodern office buildings. I asked her what made the buildings postmodern. She said she didn’t know; the term was just part of the script.

In a review of my play, “Veiled,” a critic claimed that “Conley was trying to be postmodern but is barely premodern.” I’m still baffled.

When ecclesiastics exhort us to engage in the new evangelization, they almost inevitably urge us to evangelize postmodern culture, but it remains unclear just what we are supposed to evangelize.

Among the theorists of postmodernity, the French philosopher Jean-François Lyotard (1924–98) might be the most helpful in this regard. Not only does he indicate how the culture we live in differs from the one in which we began the 20th century; he can help us to identify postmodern traits of contemporary Catholicism itself as we attempt to proclaim the Gospel in a society which seems resistant to it.

According to Lyotard, one of the striking traits of postmodernity is the collapse of the great narratives that had dominated an earlier modernity. Rooted in the Enlightenment, these narratives insisted that humanity had finally come of age and was now advancing toward a new universal truth and happiness, thanks to the linear conquests of science and philosophically trained reason. Marxism and its political expression, Communism, were particularly powerful representatives of a crusading modernity convinced that truth could be contained within one all-inclusive system. The experience of world wars and totalitarian regimes, however, has destroyed the appeal of the old modern systems. The truth uncovered in the postmodern moment will be more local and tentative. Humility has returned as a noetic virtue.

Catholicism has also undergone a certain postmodern unhinging. On the eve of the Second Vatican Council, the neo-Thomism constructed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries still stood in place. In this ambitious philosophical system, every branch of philosophy and every philosophical thesis found a perfect integration and harmonious unity in the system’s architectonic structure. One of the great challenges to the dominant system was the nouvelle théologie, launched in France in the 1940s. At first glance, a “return to sources” hardly seems subversive. But a study of the sources quickly revealed that Irenaeus’s account of the fall differed from Augustine’s and that Anselm’s theory of the atonement clashed with the Council of Trent’s. The Cartesianized Thomism of the seminary manuals was no longer the master reference. Difference, discontinuity and contradiction replaced the unity and harmony of an earlier triumphal system that had carefully hidden its patches and gaps.

Even Pope John Paul II had his postmodern moments. In his encyclical “Fides et Ratio” (1998), the cross stands in judgment on all attempts to construct philosophical systems. “The crucified Son of God is the historic event upon which every attempt of the mind to construct an adequate explanation of the meaning of existence upon merely human argumentation comes to grief. The true keypoint, which challenges every philosophy, is Jesus Christ’s death on the cross. It is here that every attempt to reduce the Father’s saving plan to purely human logic is doomed to failure.”

The work of philosophical reflection continues vigorously in the church, but it now stands more clearly under the judgment of the cross’s sign of contradiction, which in its triumphant suffering exposes the pretentions of our threadbare metaphysical systems.

At its worst, the postmodern moment is a simple reversion to modernity at its most banal: subjectivism (“Here’s my story; this is my truth; accept it”) and relativism (“This is our story; this is our truth; period”). Such stances of sloth simply exclude critique, repentance and conversion. Doctrine becomes a matter of taste rather than of truth. But in its better episodes, the postmodern moment can point to the religious truth found in cacophony rather than harmony, the unresolved rather than the certain, the jagged rather than the perfect.

Comments are automatically closed two weeks after an article's initial publication. See our comments policy for more.
Robert O'Connell
4 years 5 months ago
Fr. Conley's ninth and tenth paragraphs "wow" me: Thank you!
Paul Ferris
4 years 5 months ago
The quote from John Paul wows me but my first choice for defying human logic is the whole mystery of the God/Man, Jesus the Christ.
E.Patrick Mosman
4 years 5 months ago
"At its worst, the postmodern moment is a simple reversion to modernity at its most banal: subjectivism (“Here’s my story; this is my truth; accept it”) and relativism (“This is our story; this is our truth; period”)." Cardinal Ratzinger addressed "Conscience and Truth", in his 1991 presentation to the American Bishops in Dallas Texas. The full address can be found at: http://www.ewtn.com/library/curia/ratzcons.htm The following summarizes the conclusions; Cardinal Ratzinger touched on the correct understanding of conscience," "Conscience is understood by many to be sort of deification of subjectivity, a rock on which even the magisterium can founder. It claimed that in the light of conscience no other reason applies. Finally, conscience appears as the supreme level of subjectivity; but conscience is an organ, not an oracle; it requires growth, exercise and development." For those who hold that one's own subjective conscience is infallible, superior to all others and that the Church Authority cannot impose restrictions on those whose conscience brings them to decisions contrary to the Church's teachings, Cardinal Ratzinger points out the obvious error in this rationalization by the following "It is of course undisputed that one must follow a certain conscience or at least not act against it. But whether the judgment of conscience or what one takes to be such, is always right, indeed whether it is infallible, is another question. For if this were the case, it would mean that there is no truth - at least not in moral and religious matters, which is to say, in the areas which constitute the very pillars of our existence. For judgments of conscience can contradict each other. Thus there could be at best the subject's own truth, which would be reduced to the subject's sincerity." Cardinal Ratzinger describes the concept of the erroneous conscience as follows: "The erroneous conscience, by sheltering the person from the exacting demands of truth, saves him ... - thus went the argument. Conscience appeared here not as a window through which one can see outward to that common truth which founds and sustains us all, and so makes possible through the common recognition of truth, the community of needs and responsibilities. Conscience here does not mean man's openness to the ground of his being, the power of perception for what is highest and most essential. Rather, it appears as subjectivity's protective shell into which man can escape and there hide from reality. Liberalism's idea of conscience was in fact presupposed here. Conscience does not open the way to the redemptive road to truth which either does not exist or, if it does, is too demanding. It is the faculty which dispenses from truth. It thereby becomes the justification for subjectivity, which should not like to have itself called into question. Similarly, it becomes the justification for social conformity. As mediating value between the different subjectivities, social conformity is intended to make living together possible. The obligation to seek the truth ceases, as do any doubts about the general inclination of society and what it has become accustomed to. Being convinced of oneself, as well as conforming to others, are sufficient. Man is reduced to his superficial conviction and the less depth he has, the better for him."

Advertisement

The latest from america

So what does it matter what a celibate woman thinks about contraception?
Helena BurnsJuly 20, 2018
Former US President Barack Obama gestures to the crowd, during an event in Kogelo, Kisumu, Kenya, Monday, July 16, 2018. (AP Photo Brian Inganga)
In Johannesburg, Obama gave what some commentators consider his most important speech since he vacated the Oval Office.
Anthony EganJuly 20, 2018
With his "Mass," Leonard Bernstein uses liturgy to give voice to political unease.
Kevin McCabeJuly 20, 2018
Cardinal Theodore E. McCarrick, retired archbishop of Washington, arrives for the Jan. 6 installation Mass of Cardinal Joseph W. Tobin at the Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Newark, N.J. (CNS photo/Bob Roller)
Women often “bring up the voice of those who are the most vulnerable in our society,” says Hans Zollner, S.J., who heads the Centre for Child Protection in Rome.