Turkey's main opposition party on Monday urged the country's electoral board to cancel the results of a landmark referendum that granted sweeping new powers to the nation's president, citing what it called substantial voting irregularities.
International observers who monitored the voting also found irregularities, saying the conduct of Sunday's referendum "fell short" of international standards. It specifically criticized a decision Sunday by Turkey's electoral board to accept ballots that did not have official stamps, saying that undermined safeguards against fraud.
Turkey's electoral board confirmed the "yes" victory in the referendum and said the final results would be declared in 11-12 days. The state-run Anadolu Agency said the "yes" side stood at 51.4 percent of the vote, while the "no" vote saw 48.6 percent support.
The margin could cement President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's hold on power in Turkey for a decade and is expected to have a huge effect on the country's long-term political future and its international relations. Opponents had argued the constitutional changes give too much power to a man they say has shown increasingly autocratic tendencies.
"I suspect the result was narrower than what Erdogan expected," said Howard Eissenstat, associate professor of Middle East History at St. Lawrence University in Canton, New York. However, he added, "Erdogan has ruled with a narrow victory before. He does not see a narrow victory as anything less than a mandate. His tendency has been not to co-opt the opposition but to crush it."
On Monday, Erdogan slammed his critics at home and abroad.
"We have put up a fight against the powerful nations of the world," he told supporters greeting him at Ankara airport after arriving from Istanbul. "The crusader mentality attacked us abroad, inside their lackeys attacked us. We did not succumb; as a nation we stood strong."
Opposition parties, however, cried foul on the vote. Bulent Tezcan, deputy chairman of the Republican People's Party, or CHP, cited numerous problems in the conduct of the vote.
"This is not a text of social consensus but one of social division," Tezcan said. "There is a serious and solid problem of legitimacy that will forever be debated."
An unprecedented electoral board decision to accept as valid ballots that didn't bear the official stamp has led to outrage.
Normally for a ballot to be considered valid, it must bear the official stamp on the back, be put into an envelope that also bears an official stamp and be handed to the voter by an electoral official at a polling station. The system is designed to ensure that only one vote is cast per registered person and to avoid the possibility of ballot box-stuffing.
The board announced, however, that it would accept unstamped envelopes as valid after many voters complained about being handed blank envelopes that did not bear the official stamp. The board said the ballot papers would be considered invalid only if it was proven they were fraudulently cast.
"There is only one way to end the discussions about the vote's legitimacy and to put the people at ease, and that is for the Supreme Electoral Board to cancel the vote," Tezcan said.
He said it was not possible for authorities to determine how many ballot papers may have been irregularly cast.
Tana de Zulueta, head of the observer mission of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, said the ballot decision undermined important safeguards against fraud and contradicted Turkey's own laws.
The monitoring group described a series of irregularities in the referendum, including a skewed pre-vote campaign in favor of the "yes" vote, the intimidation of the "no" campaign and the fact that the referendum question was not listed on the ballot.
De Zulueta said overall, the procedures "fell short of full adherence" to the standards Turkey had signed up for. The OSCE cannot sanction Turkey for its conduct of the vote but it can suggest recommendations.
Electoral board head Sadi Guven rejected opposition claims of foul play, saying none of the ballot papers declared valid was "fake" or fraudulently cast. Guven said the decision was made so that voters who were by mistake given unstamped ballot papers would not be "victimized."
"The ballot papers are not fake, there is no (reason) for doubt," Guven said.
The referendum approves 18 constitutional amendments that will replace Turkey's parliamentary system of governance with a presidential one.
The changes allow the president to appoint ministers, senior government officials and half the members of Turkey'shighest judicial body, as well as to issue decrees and declare states of emergency. They set a limit of two five-year terms for presidents.
The new presidential system takes effect at the next election, currently slated for 2019. Other changes will take effect sooner, including scrapping a clause requiring the president to be impartial, allowing Erdogan to regain membership of the ruling party he founded — or even to lead it.
The referendum campaign was highly divisive and heavily one-sided, with the "yes" side dominating the airwaves and billboards. Supporters of the "no" vote complained of intimidation, including beatings, detentions and threats.
CHP legislator Utku Cakirozer told The Associated Press his party would file official objections on Monday to results at local electoral board branches, before taking their case to the Supreme Electoral Board.
"At the moment, this is a dubious vote," he said.
The country's pro-Kurdish party said it may take the case to the European Court of Human Rights if the electoral board does not reverse its decision and nullify the ballots lacking official stamps.
Ismail Calisan, an Ankara resident, accepted the result with grace.
"Even though I choose "no" and the results came out "yes," I wish the best to our country," he said.
Yet in Istanbul, accountant Mete Cetinkaya was worried about his country's future.
"I don't see the country is going down a good path," he said, sitting by the Bosporus. "Tayyip Erdogan may have done more good than the other big players (of Turkish politics) ... but I think of Tayyip Erdogan as just the best of the worst."
This story corrects the spelling of the OCSE mission chief's last name to de Zulueta.
Becatoros contributed from Istanbul.
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